What are the signs that can determine the presence of parasites in the human body?

Parasitic diseases are a group of pathologies caused by microorganisms, arthropods, and worms. They are slow-moving and have different effects on vital systems. Digestive disorders, changes in body weight, chronic fatigue are the main signs of the presence of parasites in the human body. To diagnose invasive diseases, an ultrasound is performed on the peritoneal organs, stool is analyzed for dysbiosis, and a biochemical blood test is performed.

What parasites can live in humans

The pathogens of parasitic pathologies are worms, arthropods and unicellular organisms - viruses, fungi, protozoa. Helminthic invasions caused by such helminths are diagnosed in 69% of cases:

  • trematodes (flukes) - schistosomes, cat and liver fluke;
  • scrapers (acanthocephalosis) - bead-shaped scrapers, giant combs;
  • nematodes (hookworms) - hookworms, pinworms, roundworms, whipworms;
  • cestodes (tapeworm) - broad tapeworm, bovine tapeworm, echinococcus.

Endoparasites predominate among helminthic invasions that settle in the small intestine or colon. Common arthropod pathogens in parasitic diseases include:

  • ticks;
  • centipedes;
  • reed;
  • insects.

The group of temporary parasites includes bloodsucking arthropods and leeches, and the group of permanent parasites includes lice, parasitic worms, and itchy mites. Very often invasive pathologies are caused by opportunistic fungi, protozoa - amoebas, lamblia.

diagnosis of parasites by a doctor

Parasites negatively affect the body, causing undesirable systemic effects - poisoning of waste products, gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, anemia.

Common signs of the presence of helminth samples

Symptoms depend on the type, location and amount of parasites. The clinical picture is based on the immune response to infection with a parasitic infection and damage to individual organs.

Digestive problems

Gastrointestinal disorders are primarily provoked by parasitic worms that are localized in the small intestine. Their saliva products cause an allergic reaction in the body, narrowing the bile ducts. As a result, there are complaints:

  • indigestion;
  • bloating;
  • sour belching;
  • bad appetite.

More than 80% of patients suffer from constipation, diarrhea and bloating.

Abdominal pain

The feeling of abdominal pain and abdominal difficulty is a clear sign of parasites in the body. They irritate receptors in the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, causing spastic contraction of smooth muscles. As a result, abdominal pain occurs.

If parasite flukes act as a provocateur for an invasive disease, their entry into the intestinal wall causes abdominal discomfort.

Anal itching

Periodic itching in the anal area and painful bowel movements are the first signs of parasites in the body. Symptoms are primarily provoked by pinworms, less commonly by ascaris. The former lays in the anus, causing severe itching.

The lifespan of pinworms is only 1, 5 months. Parasitic eggs have a protective shell, so they are not destroyed by external factors.

washing hands from parasites

Failure to observe hygiene leads to self-infection and an increase in the number of worms in the body.

Change in body weight

An increase or decrease in body weight is a clear sign that parasites are present in the body. The weight fluctuations are the result of:

  • increased or decreased appetite due to poisoning;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • intestinal dysbiosis.

In half of the cases, patients complain of constant hunger. But if the parasites are localized in the small intestine, more than 70% of the nutrients do not enter the bloodstream.

Blood in the stool

Signs of parasitic infection depend on the pathogen of the invasive disease. The presence of blood and mucus in the stool indicates intestinal damage:

  • human wormwood;
  • wide strip;
  • pinworms.

Penetrating into the body, parasites cause intestinal irritation. Wall inflammation leads to bleeding, mixing of blood and feces.

The skin changes

Allergic reactions are the most prominent signs of parasites in the human body. According to statistics, massive invasions cause toxic-allergic changes in 92% of patients:

  • itchy skin;
  • abscesses;
  • red spots;
  • yellowing;
  • peeling;
  • dry wine.

Yellowing of the skin indicates stagnation of bile in the body, increased activity of liver enzymes.

Decreased immunity

Accompanied by adult helminthiasis dysbiosis. More than 75% of the immune tissue is located in the gastrointestinal tract, so parasitic disease leads to secondary immunodeficiency. Decreased resistance of the body to infections is indicated by:

  • frequent colds;
  • long-term cure of cuts and abrasions;
  • regular exacerbation of chronic pathologies.
decreased immunity to parasites

Parasites deplete the body’s protective reserves, which reduces the production of antibodies against viruses, fungi and bacteria.


Worms poison the body with the products of their vital activity. Poisoning leads to autoimmune disorders with allergic effects:

  • itchy skin;
  • bronchospasm;
  • rash on the body.

The most pronounced toxic-allergic reactions provoke nail worms, trichinella, and echinococcus.

Joint and muscle pain

Myalgia and arthralgia - pain in muscles and joints - are signs of the presence of parasites in the human body. During the migration phase, the larvae of helminth samples are carried by the bloodstream. Many of them settle in the joint fluid and muscles and cause painful feelings.


Parasitic toxins negatively affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system. Massive helminthic invasions are caused by:

  • tachycardia (fast heartbeat);
  • hypertension.

Dangerous complications are provoked by tapeworms - representatives of echinococcus. They form echinococcus cysts not only in the heart but also in the lungs.

Hair loss

Disruption of intestinal absorption of substances leads to a lack of many vitamins and metabolic disorders. Therefore, common companions of parasitic diseases are:

  • dull hair;
  • excess oily scalp;
  • alopecia (hair loss).
hair loss with parasites

Vitamin and mineral deficiency leads to a relapse of oily seborrhea, which in many cases causes irreversible hair loss.

Change taste preferences

The violation of taste perception (dysgeusia) when the body is affected by parasites is due to a change in the protein composition of the blood, hypovitaminosis.

What are the signs of dysgeusia:

  • unpleasant taste in the mouth;
  • craving for sweets;
  • dullness of taste;
  • burning sensation in the mouth.

Taste disturbances are often associated with gastrointestinal diseases caused by parasitic worms.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Lack of metabolic disorders, vitamins and other useful ingredients leads to a decrease in the body's energy content, liver disorders. Therefore, patients with invasive disease complain of:

  • rapid fatigue;
  • constant drowsiness;
  • absence;
  • lethargy.
chronic fatigue syndrome with parasites

The feeling of tiredness does not go away even after a long rest or sleep.


Avitaminosis is a lack of vitamins in the body. Occurs when parasites are localized in the small intestine. Symptoms depend on which vitamin is missing. Patients are more likely to complain:

  • dizziness;
  • decreased visual acuity;
  • frequent nausea;
  • headache;
  • skin deterioration.

Long-term vitamin deficiency is dangerous due to dysfunction of vital organs.


Anemia or anemia - a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood cells. When the body is damaged by parasites, vitamin deficiencies occur, which are involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin and erythrocytes:

  • folic acid;
  • cyanocobalamin;
  • Vitamin C.
anemia with parasites

Helminthiasis anemia manifests itself in shortness of breath, headache, loss of appetite, and tinnitus.

Nervousness, sleep disturbance

In humans, infection with parasites is manifested in poisoning, which negatively affects the functioning of the nervous system. Following are complaints:

  • sharp mood swings;
  • anger;
  • depressed state;
  • sleep disorder.

Emotional lability in the background of hypovitaminosis and anemia clearly indicates that parasitic worms are damaging the body.

Deterioration of memory and attention

Cognitive impairments — loss of intellectual ability, memory, and attention — occur in the background of chronic poisoning with products of the vital activity of parasites. Helminthiasis disrupts the work of many organs, causing suffering to the nervous system and brain tissue. But in 94% of cases, cognitive disorders are reversible.


Dry cough without the accompanying symptoms of ENT disease is a sign of parasitic infection. It causes infertile cough in 8 out of ten cases:

  • human wormwood;
  • pneumonia.

During the migration phase, the larvae of the worms enter the lungs. When you cough, the globular worms enter the oral cavity, after which they are swallowed and deposited in the intestines.

Other signs

Other symptoms of invasive disease include:

  • increased body temperature;
  • enlargement of the liver;
  • bad breath;
  • obstructive jaundice;
  • yellow coating on the tongue;
  • bronchospasm;
  • isolation of worm fragments with feces;
  • restless sleep;
  • chest pain;
  • increased gas formation;
  • vaginitis in women;
  • pain in the right side.
mental disorder associated with parasites

With brain damage, neuroses and mental disorders are possible.

Symptoms of other types of parasite infections

The clinical picture depends on the pathogen of the parasitic disease.

Disease form Symptoms
giardiasis nausea, belching, itching, bloating, fever
lice itchy scalp, burning lice sting, red spots and lumps on the head, insomnia, hairs
mycosis peeling of the skin, damage to the nails, sour smell, thickening of the epidermis, cracks
amoebiasis abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody stools, loss of appetite.

There are many signs of invasive lesions in the body. It is recommended that blood tests for parasites be performed at least once a year to rule out complications.

Why are untreated parasitic infections dangerous?

Parasitic infections have a systemic effect on the body, disrupting the functioning of all organs. Delayed treatment results in:

  • ileus;
  • pancreatitis;
  • rectal prolapse;
  • lymphadenitis;
  • myocarditis;
  • bronchopneumonia;
  • cholecystitis;
  • endometritis;
  • pleurisy;
  • peptic ulcer;
  • meningoencephalitis;
  • heart failure;
  • purulent peritonitis.

In the presence of chronic diseases, parasites complicate their course. Ignoring invasive diseases can be dangerous with disability and even death.

Diagnosis and treatment

Laboratory tests are used to identify parasites:

  • scraping due to enterobiasis;
  • coprogram;
  • stool analysis for egg leaf;
  • enzyme immunoassay for antibodies against parasites.

In case of intestinal invasion, instrumental examination is recommended - ultrasound of the peritoneal organs, colonoscopy and liver scintigraphy.

The effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy is determined by the results of re-diagnosis, which is performed 1 month after treatment.

Depending on the results of the diagnosis, antiparasitic drugs are prescribed:

  • anti-nematode;
  • against trematodes;
  • protivocestodozny;
  • broad spectrum worm drivers;
  • antifungal;
  • against lice;
  • medicines for scabies mites.

Parasitic cysts (e. g. , echinococcus cysts) are surgically removed.

The clinical manifestations and treatments of parasitic diseases depend on the type of pathogen. Parasites enter the body through natural openings - mouth, skin pores, urethra, etc. Timely diagnosis and therapy of invasive pathologies prevents complications - meningitis, gastric ulcer, myocarditis.